This wiki page will be used to briefly document getting started with X.org tools and technologies. This wiki page is a quick tutorial for end-users and non-programmers. (Please add wiki content to quickly introduce and get up to speed with tools and technologies, but keep it brief -- link to manual page or other wiki pages for full details. See copyright license note at bottom.)
Tools and applications
The following are some of the commonly installed applications and tools included with X.org. This is not a complete list. This just briefly introduces, shares examples of common usage, and links to further details.
TODO: maybe better organize this by just most common applications first or just remove rarely used applications.
List "application resources". For example, "appres XTerm" will list the xterm resources. These X resources are a type of configuration syntax. Default X resource configuration files can be seen under /etc/X11/app-defaults/, /usr/local/lib/X11/app-defaults/, or other location.
Simple screensaver using MIT-SCREEN-SAVER. TODO link to details about MIT-SCREEN-SAVER. TODO: And show example usage.
"twm (Tom's Window Manager or Tab Window Manager) is the standard window manager for the X Window System, version X11R4 onwards. twm was created by Tom LaStrange. It is a re-parenting window manager that provides title bars, shaped windows and icon management, and is extensively configurable.
twm was a breakthrough achievement in its time, but has been largely superseded by other window managers and is no longer maintained. " http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tom's_Window_Manager
xcalc is a scientific calculator desktop accessory that can emulate a TI-30 or an HP-10C. (from the xcalc man page)
The xclock program displays the time in analog or digital form. The time is continuously updated at a frequency which may be specified by the user. (from the xclock man page)
Xdpyinfo is a utility for displaying information about an X server. It is used to examine the capabilities of a server, the predefined values for various parameters used in communicating between clients and the server, and the different types of screens and visuals that are available. [...] (from the xdpyinfo man page)
This opens a small "Event Tester" window. This is normally used for studying X events, such as pointer motion, entering windows, etc.
For a normal user it may be useful to identify special keys. For example, running xev and pressing the "right Windows menu" key on a system may show "keycode 117 (keysym 0xff67, Menu)" (and other details).
"xeyes is a graphical computer program showing two googly eyes which follow the cursor movements on the screen as if they were watching it." http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xeyes
Xlsclients is a utility for listing information about the client applications running on a display. It may be used to generate scripts representing a snapshot of the user's current session. (from the xlsclients man page)
"xterm is the standard terminal emulator for the X Window System. A user can have many different invocations of xterm running at once on the same display, each of which provides independent input/output for the process running in it (normally the process is a Unix shell)." http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xterm
Useful and easy way to take screenshots. Saves in the XWD X Window Dump image data format. The image can be displayed with xwud or The GIMP, ImageMagick display or other popular image viewers.
Here's an example of taking screenshot of entire display:
- xwd -root -out screenshot.xwd
Here's an example of taking a screenshot of just a selected window after three seconds:
sleep 3 && xwd -out window.xwd
(It will show a special mouse pointer for you to click in the window to capture.)
Can be used to display images in the XWD X Window Dump image format (see xwd above). Note that common utilities like The GIMP and ImageMagick display(1) can also work with these images.
Copyright / License. I have no idea what the copyright and licensing is for this entire wiki website. For this webpage, let's just consider this content is under the standard X.org license. (I'd link to it but don't see official statement on the license to be used for new code.)